plants don't produce flowers and seeds. Plants such as
ferns and mosses are called nonflowering plants and
produce spores instead of seeds. There is also another
group called the Fungi, that include mushrooms, and these
also reproduce by spores. We often think of these individuals
as "non photosynthetic plants" when in fact they belong
to their very own group or kingdom.
microscopic specks of living material. Ferns produce their
spores on the undersides of the leaves (fronds).
may have seen them. They are the brown "spots" or "pads"
on the bottom of the leaves. If you have access to a microscope,
use it to look at the spores. You will find them to be
variety of shapes and unique to each kind of fern.
Plants from parts is a form of asexual or vegetative
propagation. This process is sometimes called cloning
because every new plant is exactly like the parent. One
type of cloning uses cuttings--parts
of plants that grow into new plants. Both stems and leaves
can be used as cuttings. Another kind of cloning is grafting--the
joining together of two plants into one. Other kinds of
cloning use bulbs
parts that make new plants. You will learn more about bulbs
and tubers in Case #5.